Ulwimi lweenkobe kuqoqosho lwehlabathi olutshintshayo


Tsepiso Sathie Nzayo, Honours student, Rhodes University,School of Languages: African Language Studies

P O Box 94, GRAHAMSTOWN,6139. Email: mbuzobuciko@gmail.com Cell: 0739661583

 

3rd S.E.K Mqhayi   National Language Conference

Walter Sisulu University (Potsdam Campus)

 29-30 September 2011

 

Isicatshulwa/ isishwankathelo

Phambi kokuba ndingene emxholweni kubalulekile ukuba ndithi gqabagqaba ngembali yelizwe, imvelaphi  yalo kwakunye nemeko ekuyiyo ingakumbi xa kubhekiselwe kwiilwimi. UMzantsi Afrika, njengalo naliphi na ilizwe elinabemi abahlukeneyo ngokwenkcubeko, inkolo, amasiko, iilwimi, nelinembali yengcinezelo yobukoloniyali, ulwimi yeyona nto ithi inikwe ingqwalasela yaye ikwayiyo ethi ixoxwe okanye ibandakanye iingxoxo ezingapheliyo ezifana nemiba yezoqoqosho, ezentlalo kwakunye, nezopolitiko. UMzantsi Afrika lilizwe elenziwe zizizwana ezithetha iilwimi ezahlukeneyo, zili-9 iilwimi zomthonyama eMzantsi Afrika kodwa sisiNgesi esisetyenziswa kwiindawo nakwizinto zonke zaseburhulumenteni. Ikwasiso ke nesisetyenziswa kakhulu kunxibelelwano nakwimidiya (imithombo yeendaba), endingabalula amaphepha-ndaba, umabonakude kwakunye noo nomathotholo. IsiNgesi ikwasiso esisetyenziswa njengolwimi lonxibelelwano ngokubanzi kwihlabathi jikelele

Nangona siyazi into yokuba kunyanzelekile ukuba iilwimi zesiNtu zifumane okanye zisetyenziswe ngokulinganayo okanye ngendlela esisetyenziswa ngayo isiNgesi, kuba kaloku sise-Afrika, loo nto ithetha ukuba iilwimi zethu zesiNtu kumele zisetyenziswe ukwenzela sizokwazi ukugcina amasiko nenkcubeko. Okubaluleke nangakumbi, kufanele ukuba iilwimi zesiNtu zisetyenziswe ukwenzela ukuba abo ziziilwimi zeenkobe kubo bakwazi ukuzuza ngazo. Kodwa ke, nangona siyazi loo nto kwaye nemigaqo-ngqubo egunyazisa oko ikhona, kunzima ukuba mayenzeke, kuba ubungangamsha besiNgesi abunantanga.

Indlela olusetyenziswa ngayo ulwimi lweenkobe kweli xesha siphila kulo, ayixolisi konke konke. Bambalwa abantu abalusebenzisayo yaye balusebenzisa manqapha-nqapha. Kumaxesha amaninzi abenzi ngokuthanda, ngoko kukungqongophala kwesigama. OkaFinch (1969:5) uyavumelana nengcamango yokuba illwimi zisebenza ngendlela eyahlukeneyo, ziyakhula ukwenzela zikhulise imfuno yabantu abazisebenzisayo, ziyatshintsha kodwa xa kunyanyezelekile. Olutshintsho lungenzeka ngesiquphe xa kukho imfuneko yoko. Umzekelo,  amazwe athe afumana ukuzimela kuleminyaka idlulileyo asebenzisa iilwimi ebezifudula zisetyenziswa ligcuntswana labantu, kwezo lwimi singabalula ukusetyenziswa kwazo kwizifundo kwakunye namasebe afana nezomthetho, ezopolitiki kunye nezonxulumano. UMzansi Afrika lelinye laloo mazwe. Kwimeko ezifana nezi luninzi uboleko olwenziwayo kwezinye iilwimi. Indlela ethi sibunjwe ngayo isigama eso iyaphenjelelwa koku.

Ukusetyenziswa kwelwimi lweenkobe kuxhomekeke kwiimeko ezifana nezi zikhankanywe ngasentla. Ukutshitsha kwezoqoqosho kuba negalelo elikhulu. Ulwimi  zezinye zezixhobo ezisetyenziswayo ekuqinisekiseni ukuba amandla nobungangamsha belizwe okanye abantu abathile buqhubela phambili. Lo nto ke ithetha lukhulu malunga nendlela ekuyiyo ke apha eMzantsi Afrika nakumanye amazwe. Umzekelo, iDyunivesithi iRhodes, iseRhini, eMpuma Koloni. Abantu abaninzi bathetha isiXhosa, kodwa kusenzima ukuba isiXhosa sinikwe isidima esisifaneleyo.

Ulwimi lweenkobe kuqoqosho lwehlabathi olutshintshayo

Phambi kokuba ndingene emxholweni kubalulekile ukuba ndithi gqabagqaba ngembali yelizwe, imvelaphi  yalo kwakunye nemeko ekuyiyo ingakumbi xa kubhekiselwe kwiilwimi. UMzantsi Afrika, njengalo naliphi na ilizwe elinabemi abahlukeneyo ngokwenkcubeko, inkolo, amasiko, iilwimi, nelinembali yengcinezelo yobukoloniyali, ulwimi yeyona nto ithi inikwe ingqwalasela yaye ikwayiyo ethi ixoxwe okanye ibandakanye iingxoxo ezingapheliyo ezifana nemiba yezoqoqosho, ezentlalo kwakunye, nezopolitiko. Unobangela kukuba ulwimi lulo umntu akha ingqiqo ngalo yaye luyakhuthaza ukuba ubani athathe inxaxheba ngokupheleleyo kwizinto ngezinto ezingakhuthaza ukuphucuka kwezentlalo, kwezoqoqosho, njl njl. UMzantsi Afrika lilizwe elenziwe zizizwana ezithetha iilwimi ezahlukeneyo, zili-9 iilwimi zomthonyama eMzantsi Afrika kodwa sisiNgesi esisetyenziswa kwiindawo nakwizinto zonke zaseburhulumenteni. Ikwasiso ke nesisetyenziswa kakhulu kunxibelelwano nakwimidiya (imithombo yeendaba), endingabalula amaphepha-ndaba, umabonakude kwakunye noo nomathotholo. IsiNgesi ikwasiso esisetyenziswa njengolwimi lonxibelelwano ngokubanzi kwihlabathi jikelele

Ndikubona kubalulekile ukuba  ndiphinde ndibethe koozelekazi ndicacise umxholo. U Adegbola, xa ebhekisa kunxibelelwano lwehlabathi, uyacacisa ukuba abantu abaninzi xa bechaza ukuba yintoni unxibelelwano lwehlabathi basebenzisa indlela ezahlukeneyo. Kodwa eyona ibalaseleyo inkcazelo kukuba iGlobalization kuxa imeko okanye umba othile ungekho kwilizwe elinye kuphela kodwa uchaphazela amazwe amaninzi ehlabathini. Lo mba unokuba ubhekisa kwinkcubeko, ushishino okanye uqoqosho (Adegbola, 2006:3).

Ifuthe lweGlobalisation luyabonakala ingakumbi kwindlela elusetyenziswa ngayo ulwimi. Kubalulekile ukuba siwuphawule umahluko phakathi kolwimi lwasekhaya kwakunye nolwimi lweenkobe. Ulwimi lweenkobe,- lulwimi oluthethwa sisizwe okanye uhlanga oluthile. Lulwimi lwaloo ndawo yaye luthethwa zizizukulwana ngezizukulwana. Umzekelo isiXhosa lulwimi lweenkobe kumaXhosa. Ulwimi lwasekhaya lona lulwimi athi ubani alusebenzise umhla nezolo. Lulo alusebenzisayo xa enxibelelana nabanye abantu. Abantu bayathanda ukubhideka. Ubani uyakwazi ukuba ulwimi lwakhe lasekhaya ibe lolunye ulwimi ngenxa yefuthe olunokubangelwa zezopolitiko, ezoqoqosho okanye imfundo. Umzekelo, akunqabanga ufubona umntwana onegama lesiXhosa, ozalwa ngabaXhosa, kodwa ulwimi lakhe lokuqala ingabi siso isiXhosa..

Ulwimi lweenkobe alunandima inkulu luyidlalayo  kwimeko yezoqoqosho etshintshayo. Ifuthe lezopolitiko nelezomnotho linendima enkulu eliyidlalayo ekucinezelekeni kolwimi lweenkobe. Xa kuthethwa nge-Afrika, abantu bashiyeka benomfanekiso ombi kuba akukho nto intle ithethwayo ngayo. UDjite (2008:8) wondlala ngelokuba, kubantu baseNtshona yonke into ebhekisele kwilizwekazi i-Afrika iyingxaki, ukususela kwezopolitiko, ezoqoqosho kwakunye neelwimi, ingakumbi kuphuhliso lweelwimi. Kwixesha lonxibelelwano lwehlabathi, ayiginyisi mathe into yokufumanisa ukuba kusekho abantu abasenengxaki okanye abangaluniki ngqalelo ulwimi lweenkobe, uphuhliso lona ke ayiphathwa eyalo. Kuye kube nzima ngokugqithisileyo ukuthetha ngomgaqo-kqubo weelwimi omayelana neelwimi apha e-Afrika.

kutheni kunjalo ?,- Izizathu zininzi, kodwa zimbalwa eziza kukhankanywa. Okokuqala ilwimi ezithethwayo e-Afrika zininzi. Ngoko ke loo nto  yenza kube nzima ukukhetha ulwimi olunokuthi lusetyenziswe. Umzekelo eMzantsi Afrika, zingaphezu kumashumi amabini anesihlanu iilwimi ezithethwayo, kodwa ezaseburhulumenteni, zilishumi elinambini xa sidibanisa nolwimi lwezandla. UDjite (2008:28) ucacisa ngelithi, eyona ndlela abazithethelela ngayo abacwangcisi-lwimi ekukhabeleni ulwimi lweenkobe ngaphandle,  kungcono bagcine iilwimi zaseNtshona kumanqanaba aphezulu (afana nobuchwepheshe, ezemfundo kwakunye naseburhulumenteni) ngelinge lokunqanda imfazwe yobuhlanga phakathi kwezizwe ezineelwimi ezahlukeneyo.

Okwesibini, kulwimi lweenkobe  sinqabile isigama, ngoko ke loo nto yenza kube nzima ukuba lusetyenziswe kwezorhwebo. Ulwimi  lolunye  lwezixhobo ezisetyenziswayo ekuqinisekiseni ukuba amandla nobungangamsha belizwe okanye abantu buyagcinwa. Yiloo nto kumazwe amaninzi ase-Afrika, ingakumbi anembali yeengcinezelo yobukoloniyali, sizakufumanisa ukuba isiNgesi, isiFrentshi kwakunye nesiJamani zezona lwimi zisetyenziswayo kwimicimbi yaseburhulumenteni, kwezemfundo nakwezoqoqosho, iindawo ezithi zibonakalise ukuxatyiswa kolwimi ngabantu balo nabantetho zizezinye. (Djite, 2008:8-10).

Ezi zimvo zikhankanywe ngasentla, zibangela abantu ukuba bangakwazi ukuxhamla nokuthatha inxaxheba kwezoqoqosho nezophuhliso, UWebb noSambo (2000:5-6) bayachaza ukuba  eMzantsi Afrika mininzi imingeni ejongene nelwimi, nangona kunjalo kugxininiswa kwezi zintathu  zilandelayo.

1.Ukuthintelwa ekufumaneni ulwazi kwakunye nobuchule

Uninzi lwabantu alufundanga apha eMzantsi Afrika. Nabo bafundileyo abafundanga kuyaphi ngoku ke kuba nzima ukufumana ulwazi ngolwimi lwasemzini. Ukuba bangafundiswa ngolwimi lweenkobe, umahluko ungakhona. Kumanye amaxesha, abazali banalo igalelo ekucinezeleni ulwimi lweenkobe. Kumaxesha amaninizi abafuni abantwana babo bafundiswe ngolwimi lweenkobe, bafuna ukuba bafunde isiNgesi. Unobangela wokuba imithombo yeendaba nazo zonke ezinye izinto zibonisa ukuba ukuze ubani ‘aphucuke’  kufuneka abe kanti uthetha  isiNgesi. Kona oko kuyinyani- kodwa ke isingesi asinguye wonke ubani ofikelelayo kuso nangona sinqweneleka (Alexander, 2005). Isiphumo soku kukuba abantu abantetho ingesiso isiNgesi bayavaleleka ukufumana amathuba okuthatha inxaxheba ngokufezekileyo (umz. kwezemfundo, kwezoqoqosho) ngoba ulwimi lwesiNgesi abafikeleli kwezi ndawo ngalo kwaye ulwimi lwabo lweenkobe aluthathelwa ngqalelo kuzo.

2. Ukungasebenzi kakuhle nokungabi namveliso emsebenzini

UMzantsi Afrika lelinye lamazwe apho impawu zokungalingani phakathi kwabantu abahluphekileyo kunye nezityebi zicacileyo. Zininzi izizathu ezibangela oku. Kumaxesha amaninzi isiNgesi siso esisetyenziswayo kwiindawo zempangelo. Abantu abaninzi abakwazi ukuthatha inxaxheba emsebenzini kuba ulwimi olusetyenziswayo, isiNgesi, lubavalela ngaphandle. Ukuba i-Afrika ifuna ukuphuhla kufuneka iilwimi zesiNtu zibe yinxalenye yezoqoqosho, kungenjalo kusezokuba imingeni nokucinezeleka kwelwimi leenkobe.

3.Ukungalingani ekuthatheni inxaxheba kwezopolitiko.

Ulwimi eMzantsi Afrika  yayi sesinye sezixhobo esisetyenziswayo ekucalucaluleni nasekuxhaphazeni abantu. Iilwimi zesiNtu bezifudula zithathwa njengezingenakuma  ngokufanayo nesiNgesi kwezemfundo, kwezepolitiki nakwezoqoqosho. Ibikwazizo nezisetyenziswa ekwakheni imida yeepolitiki nokwahlula izizwana ezintsundu zoMzantsi Afrika nezintetho zahlukileyo. Le nto kuthiwa yi ‘divide and rule’ kwezepolitiki  Kaloku xa ulwimi lwabantu lungasetyenziswa, kusetyenziswa isiNgesi, abantu abaninzi abathathi nxaxheba kuba abakwazi ukuthetha isiNgesi.

Yintoni enokwenziwa ukukhusela nokukhulisa ulwimi lweenkobe ?

Ukuphuhliswa nokungatshabalali kolwimi lweenkobe kuxhomekeke ebantwini abazithethayo, kwakunye nasekusetyenzisweni komgaqo-nkqubo oncedisana namaziko ezemfundo. Ezi zilandelayo zizigqibo ekwaphunywa nazo kwinkomfa yezizwe ezimanyeneyo (2008)

  • Ukuqinisekisa ilungelo lokunikezela imfundo ngolwimi lweenkobe kubantu abathetha olo lwimi.
  • Ukunikezela ngemali kunye nezixhobo ezifunekayo ekugcineni nasekukhuliseni ulwimi lweenkobe, ingakumbi kwezemfundo.
  • Ukuguqulelwa kwemithetho yelizwe kwakunye nemibhalo engundoqo yezopolitiko ukwenzeka bakwazi abantu ukuthatha inxaxheba.
  • Ukusekwa kwenkqubo kunye namaphulo azotsala umdlala wabantu abadala nabantwana.
  • Ukuqinisekisa ukuba ulwimi lweenkobe luyasetyenziswa ngabantu balo, ukwenzela lungatshabalali bakwazi ukulidlulisela kwisizukulwana esilandelayo.
  • Ukunyusa isidima selwimi lweenkobe ngokuqinisekisa ukuba luyasetyenziswa kumanqanaba aphezulu, afana naseburhulumenteni nakumaziko emfundo aphakamileyo.

Loo nto ke ithetha ukuba kukho unxulumano phakwathi kolwimi, uphuhliso loluntu kwakunye nemfundo. Iilwimi zesiNtu zezona zisetyenziswayo apha e-Afrika, malunga ne-80 %  yabantu apha eMzantsi Afrika ezisebenzisayo. Nangona kunjalo, abafumani thuba lokuthatha inxaxheba kwezemfundo, ezoqoqosho nakwezepolitiki. Ukuphuhliswa kolwimi lweenkobe  kungavula ithuba lokuba abantu bakwazi ukuxhamla bekwadlala endima ekukhuliseni ezoqoqosho. Nangona apha ehlabathini isiNgesi ilelona lwimi longamileyo nolunobunganga. Maninzi amathuba avulelekileyo ukuba sisthathe kwihlabathi oko kuza kusikhulisa kwezoqoqosho.

UMqhayi ubhale ngokuphangaleleyo imibongo nezibongo, apho ebethetha ngezinto eziphangaleleyo. Ebekholise ukubhala ngembali nagezinye izihloko esingakhankanya kuzo, iNyani, iThemba, uThando kwakunye noBuntu nendlela yokuziphatha. Ebebalasele ngokuba yimbongi yomthonyama ethi idibanise amasiko nezithethe zakwaXhosa kwizibongo nemibongo yakhe. Umsebenzi wakhe ubungaqwalaseli ukuhlala nenkosi kuphela, ebekwazichaphazela nezepolitiki, ingakumbi emveni  kokuba abaMhlophe bathi bathatha ulawulo lomhlaba wabaNtsundu. Ezi zizinto ezimenze wohluka waza waqaqamba kwezinye imbongi.

Ngoko ke nam ndiyakhuthaza ndibongoza ukuba singayeki ukubhala nokusebenzisa ulwimi lwethu. Ukwenza njalo ndihlab’umkhosi kubafundi abalapha abanqwenela nabanenjongo yokuqhubekeka kwizifundo zabo, ukuba benze uphando ngoncwadi lwesiXhosa. Ingaphezu  kumakhulu amathandathu imibongo kwakunye nezincoko zikaMqhayi ezingazange zipapashwe. Uxanduva lokuba siveze imisebenzi yakhe luxhomekeke kuthi.

Iincwadi ezisetyenzisiweyo

  1. Djite, P.G. 2008. The sociolinguistics of development in Africa: Multilingual Matterss.  Clevedon
  2. Egbhokare, F & Kolawole, C. 2006Globalization and the future of African languages. Ibadan, Nigeria : Ibadan Cultural Studies Group, Faculty of Arts, University of Ibadan
  3. Webb,V & Kembo-Sure. 2000. African voices: an introduction to the languages and linguistics of Africa. Oxford University Press: Oxford
  4. http://www.un.org/en/events/indigenousday/pdf/Factsheet_languages_FINAL.pdf

One thought on “Ulwimi lweenkobe kuqoqosho lwehlabathi olutshintshayo

  1. sinolwimi says:

    Reblogged this on sinolwimi and commented:

    Dlala indima ekuphuhliseni ulwimi lwakho.

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